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Case 1. Following a stroke, a woman has difficulty  with verbal and written expression.  She sometimes becomes visibly frustrated because she seems to know what she wants to say but is unable to effectively communicate it to others.  Sentences become abbreviated to one or two key words which she belabors in an effort to get the message across.


Case 2.  Following his surgery for epilepsy, a man's wife contacts the surgeon with great concern about her husband.  He has become extremely forgetful and seems to take risks that are very much out of character.  He recently walked across a major highway barely escaping being hit and showed no appreciation of how close he had come to being killed.  Additionally, his libido is greatly increased and he often makes sexual advances in inappropriate settings (e.g. at restaurants, the children's school, etc.)


Case 3.  A homeless man with a history of alcoholism is taken to a free clinic in a state of confusion.  Although not presently under the influence of alcohol, his responses to questions are inappropriate.  When asked about his diet he states that he absolutely refuses to join the army.  Queried as to what that has to do with diet, he insists the physician was trying to recruit him.  He is unable to repeat a series of five numbers after a short interval.  A social worker confirms that he rarely takes advantage of the soup kitchen and sometimes seems to forget where he is.


Case 4.  A teenager survives an automobile accident but his personality appears to be changed.  The once studious boy who worked hard and always saved his money now spends whatever he can get immediately and has decided that school is a waste of time.


Case 5.  A woman complains of being chronically tired and weak and the symptoms appear to be progressing.  The weakness is generalized throughout her entire body.  A CBC shows no indication of infection and hormonal profiles are normal.  Two weeks later she is found to have a thymoma.


Case 6.  After a stroke, a woman's family complains that she is very talkative but doesn't seem to make much sense.  Further evaluation demonstrates poor comprehension of written and spoken language.


Case 7.  A man who works at a chemical plant is stopped by the police on the way home from work on suspicion of drunken driving.  He displays the typical signs of intoxication:  slurred speech, vestibular difficulty and nystagmus.  When asked to touch his nose with his eyes closed, he blatantly overshoots it.  Still, he has no smell of alcohol on his breath and the breathalyzer test comes up negative.  When asked to sign a report he displays a noticeable tremor when reaching for the pen.


Case 8.  A man in his early 40's finds himself increasingly unable to remain still.  When he tries to relax he finds himself uncontrollably writhing in serpentine dance like motions.  He has vague early childhood recollections of his mother going through similar motions when he visited her in the hospital before she died.


Case 9.  An elderly woman complains that her husband is "stuck in the mud".  It is difficult to get him out of his chair where he sits wobbling his hands with a blank expression.


Case 10.  Following occlusion of a branch of the left posterior cerebral artery, a man experiences uncontrolled flailing movements of the right arm and leg.


Case 11.  After being stabbed in the middle of the back, a young man displays spastic paralysis and lack of discriminative touch on the right side below T4 and loss of pain and temperature on the left below T6.


Case 12.  A teenager begins to notice a loss of pain and temperature sensation across the shoulders and in the upper limbs.  As the symptoms grow worse, he also develops weakness in the hands.


Case 13.  A man in his sixties with a history of STD's has difficulty standing with his eyes closed and slaps his feet as he walks.  On examination he displays a loss of vibratory sense below the neck.


Case 14.  A patient displays spastic paralysis and loss of discriminative touch on the right side of the body.  When asked to stick out his tongue, it deviates to the left.


Case 15.  An elderly man experiences loss of pain and temperature on the left side of the body and right side of the face.  His voice is very hoarse and he has difficulty swallowing.  His right eyelid droops and the skin of right face is very dry despite noticeable perspiration on the left.


Case 16.  A woman is admitted to the hospital with spastic paralysis on the right side of the body.  Her left eyelid droops and the eye is deviated laterally.






Case 1.  Broca's aphasia/inferior frontal lobe


Case 2.  Kluver-Bucy syndrome/deep temporal lobe


Case 3.  Korsakoff's psychosis/mammillary bodies


Case 4.  prefrontal cortex


Case 5.  myasthenia gravis


Case 6.  Wernike's aphasia/temporal lobe


Case 7.  cerebellar disfunction


Case 8.  Huntington's chorea/caudate nucleus


Case 9.  Parkinson's disease/substantia nigra


Case 10.  hemiballismus/subthalamic nucleus


Case 11.  Brown-Sequard syndrome/hemisection of spinal cord


Case 12.  syringomyelia/decussating fibers of spinothalamic tract in cervical region


Case 13.  tabes dorsalis/dorsal columns


Case 14.  medial medullary syndrome/pyramid, medial lemniscus, hypoglossal nerve


Case 15.  lateral medullary syndrome/spinal trigeminal tract, spinothalamic tract,

nucleus ambiguous, descending sympathetics


Case 16.  Weber's syndrome cerebral peduncle, oculomotor nerve